Dera Ismail Khan (Pashto: ډېره اسماعيل خان, Urdu: ڈیرہ اسماعیل خان) is a city in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. It is situated on the west bank of the Indus River, 200 miles (320 km) west of Lahore and 120 miles (190 km) northwest of Multan.The city is the capital of the district and tehsil of the same name. In Pakistan, its name is often abbreviated to D. I. Khan.
Dera Ismail Khan was founded toward the end of the fifteenth century by Ismail Khan, a son of the Arab adventurer Malik Sohrab, who named the town after himself. Dera means "settlement" or "abode". The original town was swept away by a flood in 1823, and the existing buildings are all of relatively modern construction.The present town stands four miles (6 km) back from the permanent channel of the river.
However, later research does not support this theory. Firstly, Malik Sohrab was not an Arab adventurer but a Hote Baluch who was appointed Soobadar of this area by the Langha rulers of Multan. Similarly the city could not have been founded towards the end of fifteenth century; because when Babar came here in 1506 he passed through this plane which is now called Dama'an and referred to it as Dasht and went up to Tank but did not mention any city around here in his Tuzk (Memoirs, originally published in Turkish). Later we are told that when in 1540 Sher Shah came to Khushab, Ismail Khan of Dera Ismail Khan went to Khushab to meet him there. So the city must have been founded in the first quarter of the sixteenth century. After the flood destruction of 1823, the present city was founded by Nawab Sher Muhammad Khan Sadozai in 1825, but he preferred to retain the old name for it. (ibid, Page 146)
During British rule the town contained two bazaars, the Hindu and Muslim population living in separate quarters. The town stands on a level plain, with a slight fall to the river, but is badly drained. It is surrounded by a thin mud wall, with nine gates, enclosing an area of about 500 acres (2.0 km2). The cantonment, which lies southeast of the town, has an area of 44 square miles (110 km2), excluding the portion known as Fort Akalgarh on the northwest side. The civil lines are to the south.
The Derajat Brigade had its winter headquarters at Dera Ismail Khan, and the garrison consisted of a mountain battery, a regiment of Native cavalry, and three regiments of Native infantry. Detachments from these regiments helped to garrison the outposts of Drazinda, Jandola, and Jatta. The municipality was constituted in 1867. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 55,000, and the expenditure Rs. 53,000. The income and expenditure in 1903-4 were Rs. 55,500 and Rs. 55,800 respectively. The chief source of income was octroi(Rs. 48,000); the chief items of expenditure were conservancy (Rs. 8,785), education (Rs. 7,246), hospitals and dispensaries (Rs. 6,302), public safety (Rs. 7,733), public works (Rs. 2,143), and administration (Rs. 5,546). The receipts and expenditure of cantonment funds during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged RS. 2,700 and Rs. 2,800 respectively.
The local trade of Dera Ismail Khan was of second-rate importance, but some foreign traffic with Khorasan passed through it. Powinda caravans of Afghan merchants traversed the town twice a year on their road to and from India; and, with the increasing security of the Gomal route, these caravans were yearly swelling in numbers. The chief imports were English and native piece-goods, hides, salt, and fancy wares; and the exports, grain, wood, and ghee. The local manufactures are lungis and lacquered woodwork. The town possesses a civil hospital; its chief educational institutions are two aided Anglo-vernacular high schools, one maintained by the Church Missionary Society and the other by the Bharatri Sabha, and an Anglo-vernacular middle school maintained by the municipality.
Siraiki is the main language spoken in D.I.Khan. The actual natives of D.I.Khan speak Siraiki, while the Afghans who came and settled in D.I.Khan speak Pashto. A good portion of the people are conversant in Urdu. English is understood by the educated.
Dera Ismail Khan is represented in the National Assembly of Pakistan through two seats which are NA-24 (D I Khan) and NA-25 (D I Khan cum Tank). The incumbent on these seats are Faisal Karim Kundi of Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) from NA-24 and Maulana Atta ur Rehman of Jamiat Ullema Islam- Fazalur Rehman (JUI-F) from NA-25.
Traditionally Dera politics has been dominated by Jamiat Ullema Islam because of the charismatic and dynamic personality of Maulana Mufti Mahmood. After his death his son Fazlur Rehman became the Chairman of JUI-F.
The people of D I Khan feel let down by the two dominant parties PPP and JUI-F as they have not done any significant efforts to improve the quality of life, build the city infrastructure or create jobs. People want change in the status quo which has provided a room for new leadership to emerge under the banner of Pakistan Tehrike Insaf (PTI). PTI has quickly gained ground in the city as many notables including Abdul Quayyum Khan Kundi, Khalid Awan, Humayon Khan Gandapur has joined the party. The youthwing of PTI in the leadership of Irfan Mallick has established district level wings to reach out to the voters. It is expected that in the next elections PTI will emerge as a leading party in the city.
2008-09 suicide bombings
This town has seen a bloody surge in sectarian schism, which has caused the loss of hundreds of innocent lives, especially those belonging to the Shia community. Being somewhat neglected by the electronic media coverage, only incidents involving bomb blasts are usually reported, whereas target killings on a day-to-day basis are not usually reported by the local newspapers and TV channels. The main benefit gained from these bombing were Tribal people. Due to series of operations by Pak-Army in Tribal Areas, most of the tribal people left their houses and came to D.I.Khan. The kind hearted and innocent people of D.I.Khan provided them food and shelter. But due to series of bombing in Mosques and other religious places, the local people left and sold their houses and all what they have willingly or by force to these refuges and shifted to other cities. Pak-Army also carried out certain search operations in the city but all in vain. The people who were once living as a refuge are now the owner of that city, and the people who were once the owner are now begging from place to place.
On August 19, 2008 a suicide bomber targeting Shias blew himself up in a hospital waiting room, killing 32 people, including seven police officers who had been deployed to guard a local Shiite leader—Basit Ali Zaidi. Twenty members of Zaidi family died on the spot while many more were injured. It is believed that the attack is one of several by the Taliban, who have taken responsibility for it, intending to demonstrate their reach and pressure the government to call off its offensive in Swat and the Bajaur Agency of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, which had begun less than two weeks previously.
On November 21, 2008, Shiite religious leader Allama Nazir Hussain Shah was shot dead in sectarian killing along with Shah Iqbal Hussain. During his funeral prayers, a suicide bomber blew himself up, killing 9 people and injuring 39.
Once again, on February 20, 2009 a suicide bomber blew himself during a funeral procession of a Shia local, killing more than 32 while injuring 157.
Dera Ismail Khan is the city which is highly influenced by the day to day target killings. Thousands of people are died in the result of target killings due to clashes between the two groups named as shia and sunni. All shia and sunni people are not involved in these religious clashes but few members of both parties are extreamist and kill eachother in the name of religion but it is rejected by the majority of Dera Ismail Khan
According to the 1901 census the population of Dera Ismail Khan was 31,737, of whom 18,662 were Muslims, 11,486 Hindus, and 1,420 Sikhs. Of the total, 3,450 lived in the cantonment. After the partition of India, many of the city's Hindu residents settled in India, primarily in Model Town, Vijay Nagar and Derawal Nagar colony in Delhi.
In 1999 it had a population of 31,737, down from its 1981 census tally of 64,358. The population is a mix of ethnic Balochi and Pashtun segments, with a significant minority of Urdu-speaking immigrants. Urdu, the national language, is understood and spoken by the majority of residents, while Seraiki is the major language of the district. Pashto is also spoken, primarily within the Pashtun community. Natives of Dera Ismail Khan are known as Derawals.
The city is connected to Bannu via the highway, which further connects it to the provincial capital of Peshawar via Kohat and Darra Adam Khel. Another road connects D. I. Khan toMianwali through Chashma Barrage. The third major road connects it to Bhakkar in Punjab, situated on the eastern bank of the Indus River. A bridge on the Indus River was constructed in the early 1980s, before which the approach to Bhakkar was made through a boat bridge.
The city has telephone, telegraph, and internet facilities — although the telegraph has recently been abandoned, in line with the government policy of transitioning away from telegraph communications throughout the country.
The city is home to many educational institutions, including:
Gomal UniversityQurtuba UniversityAl-Khair UniversityCIT College of Information & TechnologyGomal Medical CollegeAllama Iqbal Open UniversityTourist areas
Although the city is relatively new, rebuilt following the 1823 flood, many of its original structures remain — the original wall is still visible around the old city. A popular tourist destination is a pre-Islamic fort called Bilot, 30 miles (48 km) from the Dera Ismail Khan on Dera Ismail Khan - Chashma highway. These ruins are situated on a hill.
A sacred Sikh shrine is located in the Chota Bazaar of Dera Ismail Khan; Guru Nanak visited this place during his fourth itinerary. At the site where he stayed a dharamsala was built by his devotees. It is a large building, its main gate opens in the Chota Bazaar. Inside this door there is a double-storey square building, where Prakash used to take place. There are residential rooms around this building for pilgrims. Inside the darbar there is a thara sahib (pious seat) where Guru Nanak Dev Ji once sat. The Government Higher Secondary School No. 3 is currently housed in this building. This dharamsala was maintained by SGPC before 1947 and presently it is in the hands of the Waqf department. The banks of the Indus River are an attractive place for tourists. On the right side of Rehmania Street, the Hindu Baggai Saith house is a very old building of D. I. Khan, as is the Satures Building in Shieve Shah Muhalla.
Economic production in the district
One of the most famous products of this district is the "Dhakki date", which is exported to the Middle East, United States, and Europe. This date or khajoor is grown in the nearby village of Dhakki, 49 km away on Chashma Road. This district also produces wheat, sugar cane, rice, and a famous variety of mango called the langra. The most desirable langras are grown in the village of Panyala. Nowadays D I Khan is increasingly exporting another type of dried date called chooara. The majority of chooara are produced in Dhakki, Mitrah Abad and Saidu Wali. Saidu Wali is a village situated in Tehsil Pahar Pur, about 58 km from D I Khan near Dhakki and Pahar Pur. There are also coal mines in the village of Saidu Wali, on the edge of CRBC Canal.
The bazaars of the city all converge in one area, called Chowgalla (literally "intersection"). Major bazaars include Topanwala Bazaar, Bhatiya Bazaar, Muslim Bazaar, Commissioneri Bazaar, Kalan Bazaar and Bakhiri Bazaar.
Like other cities and towns of the Saraiki-speaking belt, Dera Ismail Khan is famous for a dessert delicacy called sohan (halwa). Shops selling this sweet are primarily situated in Topawaala Bazaar. The city is also known for a dish called sobat.
Dera Ismail Khan is famous for its lacquered woodwork, glass and ivory ware, mats, and sarongs. Newer industries within the city include sugar, soap, textile and oil milling. Radio Pakistan is situated in D. I. Khan., telecasting Saraiki and Pashto programmes. CRBC Canal is the major canal that provides water for irrigation.
The nearest railway station is 20 km away at Darya Khan, on the eastern and opposite bank of the Indus River.
Daewoo bus service to all major cities of PakistanAir link via Pakistan International Airlines to all major cities of PakistanKarachi bus terminalLahore AddaBaloch RunnersMain Lari Adda D. I. KhanNiazi bus standProa AddaSee also
Dera Ismail Khan DistrictDera Ismail Khan Airport